James E. Duggan-Author
This article differs from our groups research because of the fact that it focuses around the lifetime income of an individual person. It is not focused on GDP or an entire countries wealth. They looked at age groups to see how much money they had, and how long they lived. They tended to find that from ages 30 money did not make massive difference, but by the age of 65 money made a big difference. This could be because of a number of things including things like not being able to pay for medications, or not being able to afford health care premiums. It is interesting to view a study similar, yet different to ours to gain a wider perspective and outlook on the situation our group is dealing with. The Health coverage can be a major factor on life expectancy. We know that the total mortality rates are going up, but that is also due to the increase in population. What people are not looking around at is, are there other reasons why the death rate is going up, or is it strictly from population increase. Everyday people die, and with life being as valuable as it is. It is important to keep studies like these going to view the negative impacts that our nations choices can possible have on people, and what we as a nation can do to stop this from happening. All things considered health care is a big issue, and it can cause people who need medication to be denied. This is something that the government needs to take a look at, and should be doing something about with the outrageous costs of health care.
The Gap Gets Bigger: Changes In Mortality and Life Expectancy
This article looked at the differences in mortality and life expectancy between non-Hispanic blacks and whites. They looked as well at different income levels to see how much it would change their life expectancies in 1980 and 1990. It was interesting because their research was close to ours in the way that they looked at the changes in life expectancy and they also had to money aspect. It was on a smaller scale because they looked at only the years 1980 and 1990. This being said it they took their research a step further and included race and looked at their incomes and life expectancies. They also looked at different causes of death and found smoking was the highest reason for death. In their research they matched the census of the overall population against Multiple Cause of Death files. This was to see the death totals of the years 1980 and 1990. They believe that this brought in a good estimate of total population and death count, but they did state that there could be some miscounting because of the fact that there are fake birth certificates out there. This study also crossed into the education levels of people, and between whites and blacks between the years the percent of higher education people rose in both. This study seemed to be a bit complicated with a lot of variables. They went as far as going into age-race-sex-education level. This would mean it would be hard to get hard solid data, but overall it would be an interesting research project. The findings were quite interesting though. From 1980 to 1990 the higher education life expectancy rose 1.6 years, but the lower education life expectancy rose by .5. For only being a 10 year difference this is quite a substantial amount. This article is looking at the financial classes as well as the race factor. It is interesting to think about, what can be done to increase the life expectancy for everyone, not just the upper classes. You wouldn’t think that money could make a giant difference, but it does. More money means better health care, better health care means the best opportunity to increase life. Life is valuable, and as a society we should be doing as much as we can to increase the lives for everyone across our nation. This can be possible with more research, and the correct actions being taken by our nation.
Actual Cause of Death in the United States, 2000. Ali H. Mokdad, PhD
The second article was focused around death and the causes of it. There were many different causes of death in this study, but they also looked around at total growth of our population in America and increasing age. This is interesting because our project is dealing with life expectancy, and to think that possibly the more people living in an area could increase or decrease life expectancy. The more people on this earth also means more brilliant minds can work together. This could be part of the reason why our advances in technology and medicine have been sky rocketing in this decade. From this article it was found that in the year 2000 there were around 250,000 more deaths than there was in 1990. This can be because of the population growth and just old age, but this article does not dig deep into that. They simply looked for the causes of death. The leading cause of death in 2000 was related to the use of tobacco products. They estimate that 435,000 deaths are from smoking. This included the possibility of second hand smoke. It is crazy to think that many deaths are from smoking alone. The other leading causes were heart disease, malignant neoplasm, and cerebrovascular disease. This was increase of death amounts from what we previously saw in 1990. This was no simply because of the fact that our population is growing, and we know that because there were more deaths per 100,000 in 2000 due to heart disease. This article is relevant to us because we can use it to look at a different angle to our own research with life expectancy. They also found in their research that smoking was the leading cause of death in 1990, and it also was the leading cause of death in 2000. They did find that there was lower percent of smokers in 2000 than in 1990. They believe that in the near future there will be more deaths due to poor dieting and exercise which was a large part of the death totals in both 1990 and 2000. It is hard to put blame of death on one thing when it can be multiple things. People who smoke might also have horrible diets and do not exercise. So, to put a specific label on cause of death for every single person is kind of difficult and many of these deaths could possibly fit in to multiple categories. Overall this was a good article and a good research project that gives good insight to my own project.
The first article I read was a primary focus of income and life expectancy. This article was different from the information we found off gap minder. This was a study done on the United States specifically. They got there information from the Office of Tax Analysis of the United States treasury. They took records from people with a social security number, and used data from 1999 to 2014. They measured death in the United States through the Social Security Administration death records. They were able to calculate income compared to age in many different ways. They had to take things into account like retirement ages, money made before the age of 60, and money made after the age of 60. They do state in this article that there can not be a definite answer to some of these questions, but they are able to calculate the likely hood age of death by income. They got statistics and they were able to come up with statistics to prove that income does have an impact on the life expectancy of someone. The average age studied was 53 and the average income per person was $61,115 per year. Keeping in mind that this is the United States and not any other countries these numbers could be extremely different. They came across some interesting results with the data they collected. Life expectancy from the top one percent to the bottom one percent was a difference of 14.6 years for men and 10.1 for women. The life expectancy also rose over the time of data collected. For the top five percent it rose 2.34 years as compared to .32 years for the bottom fiver percent. This article shows many different ways you can interpret data and what you can do with it. You can collect data to get one over arching result, but inside of that result might be hundreds of other findings in science.
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